Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Efficiency of Window Systems
readiness of windowpanepanepane SystemsReview of Window Shopping A Study of screen background Window Switching.ORIGINAL ARTICLEWarr, A., Chi, Ed H. , Harris, H., Kuscher, A., Chen, J., Flack, R. and Jitkoff. N. (2016) Window Shopping A Study of Desk prime Window Switching. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI multitude on Human Factors in Com gifting Systems (CHI 16). ACM, New York, NY, USA. pp 3335-3338.ABSTRACTThis is a review of a research oblige by Warr et al (2016), of Google Inc, Window shopping A Study of Desktop Window Switching, which is an investigation into the expertness of window systems. Having multiple windows grant is commonplace but users often lead problems switching amidst windows. This underwrite presents an experiment used to evaluate window switching embrasures that are being considered for a new operating system. Its centre is an understanding of the effects of switching on user performances in scathe of clip to switch and errors in option. The exper iment compares three unlike styles of window switching portholes and their effects on user performances. The embrasures elect were the card game port, the Expos embrasure and the mosaic porthole.The results from the experiment suggest that the photomosaic interface allows faster selection than the Cards interface and is less stupid than the Expos interface.SUMMARY OF ARTICLEThe report come forthlines some windows research since the 1980s to the present era. Early research (Bly el al. 1986) showed that even though cover window systems were faster than overlapping windows, users however preferred overlapping windows. Their conclusion being that it is imperative to create window systems that are both efficient and meet their user preferences. Research by Card and Henderson (1987) argued for tropes that reduce the time and cognitive load of switching tasks. Hutchings et amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2004) rent showed that users often have 8 or more windows generate at eit her time with a median activation time of 3.8 seconds. Other research looked at arranging and grouping windows. These research flora inspired Warr et al to investigate three window switching interfaces. The chosen interfaces wereThe Cards Interface These resemble playing cards with down(p) abstract representation of the window and small amounts of information. They are spread like a stack of cards with the most new-fangled window showing at the front.The Expos interface This arranges the windows in a map, based on their size and accredited position.The Mosaic Interface In this interface the windows are paced in order of magnitude of most recent left to right in a power system form with the windows scaled to size of grid cell.The report flesh out the visualise and procedures used in the experiment. They used a 3X3 mixed factorial design for the experiment. This being the three user interface types by three different form of windows open at a time namely 3, 6 and 9 windows.T he experiment was carried out to prove two hypothesises about window switching.Hypothesis 1 That the Mosaic interface allows windows to be selected faster than the Cards and Expos interfacesHypothesis 2 The Mosaic interface would have less errors in selection than the Cards and Expos interfaces.The experiment was carried out in a science lab using 42 participants (27 female and 15 male) ranging in age from 18-60. The participants were volunteers and were selected on the basis that they used laptops as their main computing device, hadnt used any of the selected interfaces previously and on average had more than one window open at any one time. They developed an application which prototyped the interfaces and allowed them to control and fulfill the entropy.Trials were carried out using each of the interfaces and selected derive of windows. The participant were instructed to switch to predefined windows and the time taken to select the correct window and any errors in selections we re recorded. The details of the conditions used are defined.The article displays the results for selection time and errors and shows them in carry over and graphical format for each interface and number of windows. Using a number of statistical tests the results allowed for partial acceptance of both hypothesis. They suggested that the Mosaic interface allows quicker window selection than the Cards interface that the Mosaic interface has fewer selection errors than the Expos interface.In the discussion they imply that the Mosaic interface was faster because the need to scroll in the card selection make it inefficient especially as the number of windows increases. Also in the Expos interface as the number of open windows increases the size of the thumbnails in the Expos interface decreases do them more difficult to distinguish. There wasnt much difference in number of erroneous selections between the interfaces except the Expos interface at the greater number of open windows. They surmise that was due to the fact the thumbnails were small and hard to distinguish. The limitations utilize in conducting the experiment makes this a worst case scenario.They conclude that the Mosaic interface enables fast, less error prone window selection.DISCUSSIONThe article is well laid out. It summarises some similar research previously carried out in window switching although they say that this is the first comparative study of these specific window overview schemes (p 3336). Their reference material is fairly old. The most recent being a study of their own presented at the CHI multitude in 2011. The aim of the experiment, investigating the efficiency of three window interfaces, and the causal agency for it are well defined. It presents the experiment in distinct sections outlining the design of the experiment, how the participants were chosen, the materials used, the procedures, their comment of the results and conclusion.They conclude that the Mosaic interface is the f aster and the least error prone of the three chosen interfaces. This is internally valid as it was in a controlled environment however how transferable this is in the truly world where precedent roll in the hayledge and familiarity may affect the results is not measured. It also ignores user preferences that Bly et al considered important. There is no measure of the user experience in this experiment. nonrandom sampling of participants appears to have been used. They did not include a group with front knowledge of the interfaces and were careful throughout the experiment to alleviate any culture effects. This may have been for quick and economic reasons even though participants receive a gift card. The sample size may be small because of the criteria used to select the participants and there is no explanation as to wherefore there are almost twice as many women. The data collected from this group cant really be used to talk about the interfaces. The results may be biased tow ards non experienced users. They could however be used as a control reference for any next research to externally validate these interfaces with other users.The authors of the article are interact to Google inc and Warr, Chi and Harris have published many articles in areas relating to computer interface design. Their previous works has been cited many times. This paper was presented to the CHI 16 group discussion on Human Factors in Computing Systems. This is a top crowd for HCI where the next of how people interact with technology is discussed. It is a conference for top researchers, designers and corporations. This was an ideal place to present this research paper and may sprightly nurture research in this area.A good knowledge of statistics is mandatory to understand the results as presented in the article. The researchers appear to be confident in their methods and choice of statistical tests but without a knowledge of statistics it is difficult to know whether their choic e of statistical tests are biased.In their discussion they explore the reasons wherefore the Mosaic interface may have been faster than the Cards interface. The put forward three credible explanations for this. These factors could be explored in any future studies.They acknowledge the fact that the experiment may not reflect real life scenarios.CONCLUSIONWarr, Chi, Harris, Kuscher, Chen, Flack, and Jitkoff presented a detailed experiment in window switching interfaces that were being considered for a new operating system. They suggest that the Mosaic interface allows faster selection than the Cards interface and less erroneous than the Expos interface from the results they obtained. The results may not transfer to the general population and does not study the ergonomics of the interfaces and ignores user preferences. However they may inspire further research in the area of window switching.BIBLIOGRAPHYBly, S. A. and Rosenberg, J. K. 1986. A comparison of tiled and overlapping windo ws. Proc. CHI86, ACM Press, 101-106.Card S. K. and Henderson, A. 1987. A Multiple, Virtual-Workspace Interface to Support User labor Switching. Proc CHI87, ACM Press, 53-59.Hutchings, D. R., Smith, G., Meyers, B., Czerwinski, M., Robertson, G. 2004. Display space usage and window management operation comparisons between single monitor and multiple monitor users. Proc. AVI04, ACM Press, 32-39.