Wednesday, April 3, 2019

An Examination Of The Kalabagh Dam Controversy Environmental Sciences Essay

An Examination Of The Kalabagh obturate Contr everywheresy Environmental Sciences try onSince the Independence of Pakistan in August 14th 1947, Pakistan had galore(postnominal) dekametres but the terzetto main direct occludes were Tarbela, Mangla, and Warsak. For the past decade following the virgin millennium, in that location has been an immense electricity shortage in the kingdomed e sound out of nearly 3000 megawatts payable to frightening urine record and siltation in the impedes. in that respectby President Pervez Musharaff in 2005, realizing this great problem, re-opened the idea of Kalabagh dekameter, in December 2005, It was said to be in the greater interest of the nation. This impede was to be make on the Indus River. It was primed(p) in Kalabagh in the Mianwali district which is in the province of Punjab. The dam would be bordering the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ara. This utile dam would offer up a storage faculty of 6.1 one thousand thousand soil, whic h would non just now provide pee for irrigation but for the development of raw offers under the Water Appointment Accord (WAA) of 1991. However, even though this purge was already proposed in 2008, when the peoples party politics came into antecedent, Raja Pervez Ashraf the Federal rector for Water and Power cancelled the plan by stating that there was angered memorialisedown from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and that the rove was no longer feasible.kalabagh 3.jpg kalabagh 4.jpgThis disagreement arose due to a conflict of interests between the common chord provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . Main reason was that there would be unequal benefits to the provinces. However, after the heavy floods that touched Pakistan in the year of 2010, m altogether believed that the construction of the Kalabagh dam would catch helped save a bearingsize cadence of devastation.The main importance of dams is to stop the flow of piss, divert irrigate, generate hydroelectricit y, and provide water for irrigation, improving navigation, supply water to a town or a city, flood control, and generate source for that specific area. The main controversies that make it in this unloose can be highlighted as water availability, pabulum security, energy, the environmental and ecosystem impacts, the technical and fiscal feasibility of Kalabagh, social impacts these include federation dis hind endment and rehabilitation.The debate on the Kalabagh dam takes its importance from the fact that if it had been built it could convey rescue the country from its worst ever natural disasters in which 20 million people were dis enjoind. Apart from this, the dam if built would be able to produce 3500 megawatts of electricity which could make water in turn saved the country from the power crisis it is facing today. However, this debate can be rebounded through an different theory that if the trio operating dams Mangla, Tarbela, and Warsak flush the silt, the country wou ld or so be rid of its power shortage in the first place and it would convey a colossal misallocation of resources in a time where the country is already in great debt. There seems to be a continuing mistrust and conflict of self interest between the central governments, grunge owners and politicians from which some fear that the building of the dam could mean more floods, and finally destroy their crops.The Kalabagh dam would cost an estimated US $3.4 billion and was scheduled to be completed in a time span of six geezerhood. publications Reviewkalabagh 8.gifDebateThe Kalabagh dam is a huge and costly multipurpose externalize. Its main focus leave behind be to provide electricity, and water for irrigation. The Kalabagh mega dam volition professedly be able to generate 3600MW of electricity and go throughstock 6.1 MAF of water which pull up stakes be able to irrigate 2 million acres providing for the food, and power needs of Pakistan. However, it will closure in inten se degradation of land by water-logging in almost 20 years time. The other issues are the financial issues related with the building of Kalabagh dam. There is a very tiny possibility of our government in getting financial aid from international organizations. Most probably the dam will hardly increases are countries debts. However, if private infra mental synthesis funds are attracted to finance the Kalabagh dam at a high return rate, it is uncertain that the project will still stay fiscally and cost-effectively feasible.1The thought and possibility of building a largish scale irrigation and power genesis project at Kalabagh has elicited fierce criticisms among stakeholders. This has enabled this topic to still be a debated argument, and idea without a clear conclusion The very thought of building a large scale dam and non many smaller ones, to the thought of providing exquisite compensation, and the tremendous environmental and social impacts has emerged Kalabagh as an inten sive and extensive bailiwick of argument. Clear cut information gaps, with low credibility of the government and the operating agencies, puts Kalabagh as an obstacle to informed debate. People supporting the construction of kalabagh dam argue that it is essential to meet the growing demands of an ever increase existence for cheap food, energy and that it will as well increase the useful life of Mangla and Tarbela dams through reducing siltation.There seems to be an absence of systematic comparisons of Kalabagh with alternating(a) ways of increasing deliveries of water in the irrigation system. It remains seemingly ambiguous whether water flow in the Indus are violated or modified. Second, if youthful water below Kotri are reduced, the impact upon people dependant on agriculture and fisheries in coastal Sindh is highly disastrous. This will just import in the violation of the Water Accord. another(prenominal) harmful effect of severe irrigation increase could also cumulate to foster high levels of water logging and salinity in the Indus basin.kalabagh 9.jpeContinuous failures by the government in Tarbela, Ghazi barotha and Chotiari jazz up little confidence in the government. The seminar also raised fundamental issues about the collection of funding for the construction of the kalabagh dam. If this project was to take place, hundreds and thousands of people will have to be resettled.1FeasibilityThe Kalabagh mega dam will professedly be able to generate 3600MW of electricity and store 6.1 MAF of water which will be able to irrigate 2 million acres providing for the food and power needs of Pakistan.The inundated kucha Lands on the river Indus are 595,000 acres of think plant land and 600,000 of rich grazing land. If kalabagh dam project is given a green light, it could result in the grazing of this land which will get on result in the lost of economic and social well world of a million people. However, it could also result in solving the power crisi s of the entire country. Furthermore, the mangrove forest in Pakistan is spread over 650,000 acres and is the 6th largest in the world. It protects and nurtures thousands of botanic, aquatic, and wild life species.kalabagh 5.jpgConstruction of Kalabagh will stake the existence of these species. The total estimated cost of financing this project would be approximately US $8.0 billion (Oct, 1996 cost). The positive outcome identified from Kalabagh dam would be the Indus floods every five or six years, if there was a place to store this water, most of Pakistans problems concerning water availability would be almost over.2in any event storing over 6 million acre feet of water for irrigation purposes, the dam would produce over 3600 MW. Kalabagh would be a source of cheap electricity and could serve to a massive advantage of many people. Petitions by some people have been filled against the federal government of neglecting the national interest by abandoning the project of Kalabagh whi ch if constructed could serve hugely advantageous to the national economy. The dam would be a multipurpose project and should purely be falling in the domain of professional engineers as it seems that politicians oppose the dam more for political reasons than for any defect in the project.Opinions of Provinceskalabagh 10.gifThe leading political party in creating opposition was the Awami National Party which declaimed fierce reservations on the issue. The then bill Minister Nawaz Shariff supported the construction and said that it should initiate without any further delay. Stakeholders in the National interest say that the agriculture and industrial sphere could be served with the construction of the Kalabagh dam. It would be able to serve 2400 MW hydel power which could be maximized up to 3600 MW. According to some prominent individuals, It seems to be critical that the Kalabagh issue be resolved as day by day the the storace capacity of Mangla, Tarbela, and Chashma is gradually decreasing by sediment deposits. A difference of cerebration in the ruling provinces has risen with Punjab and the federal government vowing for and the other three provinces voting against. A wrong decision could indeed jolt the federation.3The irrigation and hydropower structure constructed along the 2900 km long the length of the river Indus includes two dams, nineteen barrages and cardinal three canals. The proposed location is 200 km downstream of Tarbela and Mianwali in Punjab province. The project will provide 35000 jobs. Experts say that Wapda has exaggerated the figures of water availability and that the water quality will be degraded if project initiates. The Arabian sea water might travel upwards for considerable distances submerging/immersing large region of lower Sindh.The shortage of water created by the dam could result the desertification of Sindh. Wapda has claimed that there is 17 MAF net available water but very there is a shortage in the system and that Pakis tan requires 16.0 MAF, so there is no surplus water for Kalabagh dam. It is also argued that if the water level in Mangla was increased without any study capital investment, what was the need for the construction of Kalabagh dam at the cost of Rs. 250 billion. Also, if farming practices were corrected, water logging and salinity could be reduced and there would be no need for the construction of Kalabagh.4 air division proportionsThe Kalabagh debate facts are not transparent and key issues like how frequently Indus river water is available and for whose usage and what expense remains unanswered. The 6.1 MAF water stored at Kalabagh is planned to be distributed as follows Here are the supposed calculations of the water distribution, NWFP 1.1MAF, Punjab 2.1 MAF, Sindh 2.1 MAF and Balochistan 0.7MAF. This clearly shows that water distribution will be far from pro rata divided. Recent studies by professional analysts also clearly show that Wapda has wrong calculated the eastern river flows.5Matters to considerLooking at the historical context, three trends can be seen, firstly, the need for water increasing, secondly, available water decreasing, and eventually downstream flow of water also decreasing. Like previously, it also seems undecipherable how the federal government plans to compensate the displaced persons, particularly the Sindhis who will be impact the most if the dam is to be built. From the information gathered, it can be famed that the construction of Kalabagh would mean a critical loss of natural home ground we need more information on how Kalabagh will affect the Indus and Pakistan forwards making a decision.6Discussionkalabagh 11.jpgThe Kalabagh dam has many positive and ostracize sides to it. Many specialists believe that Kalabagh dam is a constructive and needful project while others believe that it has too many substantial negative aspects to it, and that it would be a bad idea to go through constructing it.My personal situation on K alabagh is that it should not be made and instead a best(p) planned dam with less profound resistances, and difficulties should be implemented. Many facts show that Kalabagh dam could bring about major catastrophic problems, and yet would not guarantee the required supply of energy.Some major problems of the Kalabagh dam macrocosm implemented include the major problem of the Indus River running out of water or the water that remains there could get polluted due to salinity. The Indus river has already seen water shortages in the past decade, and the dams that are present already have not been able to be filled to their capacities. Besides this, the major conflict between the Punjab and the other three provinces is far too great. It is a common thing to believe among the people of the other three provinces that only the Punjab would be benefiting from the project. This belief amongst the three provinces can lead to a huge dispute within the country.The other major conflicts that t rendd for the plan to be rejected back in 1996 were that Kalabagh has been estimated to silt quick than normal dams, the overall provide performance of the dam seems not to be up to the required standard, and would have more cons than pros. It is estimated that the electricity that would be generated would be much less than the other already operating, and what is really needed. The electricity generation being so less, would mean that the maintenance, and operating expenses of the dam would be high than the overall outcome. If the dam silts quicker this could cause the capacity of the dam and its performance to decrease even further.Another serious concern of the Kalabagh dam project is the displacement of the people who live in the area near the projected dam. These people will have to be resettled elsewhere which is another serious cost to the government. There would be a huge loss in the fertile land of the country, especially in the Punjab and Khyberpakhtunkhwa provinces.kal abagh 2.jpgThe Kalabagh dam project is located near the forests where there is a huge make sense of wildlife as well as trees necessary for mans survival in that area. These trees have material necessary for manufacturing of certain herbs and medicines. Endangering the wildlife is in turn dangerous for us as well, as food arrange and the environment would be negatively afflicted.roads.jpgThe structured building of the Kalabagh dam would also affect some of the major transportation routes in those particular areas. atomic number 53 of much(prenominal) bypasses is the Attock-Talang by-pass. These highways and bypasses would have to find a substitute route and this would cause further plans, implementation, and construction of new roads all across the province. This would further increase the cost, and would mean additional costs to the already weak project.7The Kalabagh dam would bring more pressure on the river Kabul, and this would in-turn cause more water logging. Another disru ption would be in providing gas. Kalabagh would disrupt the Sui gas piping line between Peshawar-Rawalpindi, and Rawalpindi-Kohat. This would mean that new ways must be found to produce gas to these areas just as effectively and efficiently as these Sui gas lines do.Kalabagh dam would need a high amount of capacity to be filled for storage and irrigation canals, and to fill these amounts Sindh and Balochistan would have to nurture from shortages in water availability. This discussion could go on and on, the list will keep growing. However, the last major issue that the project of Kalabagh represents is that the location at which the dam is designed to be built lies on a amiss(p) piece of earth, where a major earthquake could result in a really massive disaster.8http// a world where the worlds less flushed countries continue to be taken for granted by the more goodish nations, and where constant exploitation is norm, th e World Bank continues on to show its state of readiness for the help of the Kala Bagh Dam, financially or otherwise. It has continued on to express that this project is the largest one currently present in the Banks Agenda. It has been in the Banks books since 1962 when Sir William Illif, the Banks chairman, along with USAID gave their votes for the Kala Bagh Dam. Wapda, on the other hand, were in the favor of the Tarbela Dam, which was later on selected by the countrys government and became the entity after a little while.kalabagh 7.JPGThe Kala Bagh Dam has been described as a social service for the countrys electricity users who are using it unaffectionate of cost. It has also been noted that the main idea behind the whole Kala Bagh Dam Project was to construct another source of electrical power generation for Pakistan, which has been facing deficits in meeting its electrical power demand. The Environmental shock absorber of the project is also considered to be a major issue. K eeping all these things in mind, the project incurs more social costs than benefits if the project is authentic and brought into construction.9kalabagh 12.jpgIt can be concluded that Kalabagh dam is not going to be beneficial to the country. It obviously poses some positive points such as higher production of energy, more irrigation, but these claims are just claims and have not stood well under the analysis of technical experts. WAPDA along with the present government has had a reputation for being highly non reliable, and untrustworthy.The projective supporters of Kalabagh seem to have not addressed the problems that would arise from the project in much detail. Even if the claims of the governments and the figures by WAPDA are accepted there are other major problems that cannot mayhap be dealt with easily dealt with or avoided.The pollution of the water in the areas of Sindh and Balochistan are major sources of disputes. Even on human grounds when people backing in those areas w ould be displaced, besides the cost, the people would have to move to a whole new lifestyle and familiarize themselves to a whole new environment. The long term effects of Kalabagh dam are inevitable such as the environmental degradation of the forests and the wildlife being adversely affected.Instead of constructing Kalabagh, the liberal capacity of the Pakistans existing dams Tarbela, Warsak, and Mangla should be utilized by clearing the silt, and increasing the height of the walls. Kalabagh dam is a mega project with huge risks as well. It would be wiser to construct a number of small dams which could produce the required energy, and not have major conflicts of opinion associated with their construction.kalabagh 13.jpg

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